Love and Capital

Karl and Jenny Marx and the Birth of a Revolution


By Mary Gabriel

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Brilliantly researched and wonderfully written, Love and Capital reveals the rarely glimpsed and heartbreakingly human side of the man whose works would redefine the world after his death.

Drawing upon previously unpublished material, acclaimed biographer Mary Gabriel tells the story of Karl and Jenny Marx's marriage. Through it, we see Karl as never before: a devoted father and husband, a prankster who loved a party, a dreadful procrastinator, freeloader, and man of wild enthusiasms — one of which would almost destroy his marriage. Through years of desperate struggle, Jenny's love for Karl would be tested again and again as she waited for him to finish his masterpiece, Capital.

An epic narrative that stretches over decades to recount Karl and Jenny's story against the backdrop of Europe's Nineteenth Century, Love andCapital is a surprising and magisterial account of romance and revolution — and of one of the great love stories of all time.


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Character List

Adams, Charles Francis—lawyer, U.S. ambassador to Great Britain during Abraham Lincoln's administration, son of the sixth U.S. president, John Quincy Adams.

Adler, Victor—Austrian journalist, leader of the Austrian Social Democrats, and a close associate of Engels.

Albert (né Albert Francis Charles Augustus Emmanuel of Saxe-Coburg-Gotha)—married Queen Victoria in 1840 and became Prince Albert. He was instrumental in developing cultural and scientific institutions in England.

Alexander II (né Aleksandr Nikolayevich)—czar of Russia from 1855 to 1881. He ended serfdom in 1861 and allowed some modernization of Russia's economy and political life, but his government was repressive and accused of neglecting the vast majority of its citizens. He was assassinated in 1881.

Earl of Angus—descendant of one of the oldest family lines in Scotland dating to the tenth century, the first Earl of Angus was titled in 1389. He died in prison after being captured by the English.

Anneke, Fritze—ex-Prussian military officer, journalist, and an early communist agitator in Cologne, later a democrat. He was jailed for six months in 1848 for organizing workers, fought in the 1849 uprising in Baden, and emigrated to the United States, where he joined the Union army during the Civil War.

Annenkov, Pavel—wealthy Russian liberal journalist and friend of Marx.

Appian—historian born in Alexandria, capital of Roman Egypt, c. AD 95. He wrote Roman History sometime before 165.

Earl of Argyll—descendant of one of Scotland's most powerful and controversial families, Archibald Campbell, 7th Earl of Argyll, was executed in Edinburgh in 1661 for opposing Britain's Charles II.

Aveling, Edward—British doctor of zoology, journalist, secularist, theater critic, playwright, socialist, labor agitator, and common-law husband of Marx's youngest daughter, Eleanor. His pen name was Alec Nelson.

Aveling, Isabel (née Frank)—first wife of Edward Aveling, daughter of a wealthy poulterer in London's Leadenhall Market. Known as Bell.

Bakunin, Antonia (née Kwiatkowski)—daughter of a Polish merchant, wife of Mikhail Bakunin.

Bakunin, Mikhail—nineteenth-century Russian aristocrat turned anarchist and author, he had a loyal following in Italy, France, Poland, Spain, Switzerland, and Russia, and was Marx's lifelong political rival.

Balzac, Honoré de—French novelist who combined Romanticism with realism to produce a detailed and intimate picture of social, political, and economic life during the early nineteenth century in France.

Bangya, Janos—Hungarian journalist and police spy for Prussia who successfully infiltrated Marx's inner circle in London. He later worked for the secret police in Paris under Napoleon III.

Barbes, Armand—veteran French revolutionary and member of the early Society of the Seasons, which led a failed revolt in 1839. Imprisoned by Louis-Philippe and freed after the 1848 revolt, he briefly became a member of the National Assembly.

Barrett, Michael—Irishman hanged in 1868 outside London's Newgate Prison for his participation in a bombing at the Clerkenwell jail that killed twelve people. Barrett was the last man publicly hanged in England.

Barthélemy, Emmanuel—French follower of Auguste Blanqui and fighter in the 1848 June Days in Paris, he appeared in London at about the time Marx arrived in 1849 and frequented some of the same political associations. He believed Marx too conservative and plotted to kill him. Barthélemy was later executed in London for two murders.

Baudelaire, Charles—one of France's most influential poets, he examined mystical darkness as well as man's cruelty to man, which he described as evident in the nineteenth-century society around him. He was a friend of Marx's future son-in-law Charles Longuet in Paris in the 1860s.

Bauer, Bruno—Young Hegelian, radical German theologian and philosopher, and an early Marx colleague in Berlin.

Bauer, Edgar—German philosopher, writer, and Young Hegelian, he was attacked by Marx and Engels in The Holy Family along with his brother Bruno but remained friends with Marx in London.

Bauer, Heinrich—German shoemaker and a founder of the League of the Just in London, he later became a member of the Communist League, traveling from London to Germany to propagandize. He eventually emigrated to Australia.

Bauer, Ludwig—German doctor in London who attended the Marx family upon their arrival in London and pursued Marx for unpaid bills.

Bax, Ernest Belfort—British journalist and author of the first independent English review praising Marx's Capital, Volume I. Later active in the burgeoning British socialist movement along with Eleanor Marx, he was a future leader of the British Socialist Party.

Bazalgette, Joseph—nineteenth-century civil engineer charged with building a sewage system for London that would protect its citizens from outbreaks of cholera that killed thousands.

Bebel, August—a leading figure in the nineteenth- and early-twentieth-century German workers' political movement and the International, cofounder of the Social-Democratic Workers' Party, and member of the Reichstag, he would be a critical figure in the movement after Marx's and Engels's deaths.

Becker, Hermann—German lawyer and journalist who had begun publishing a series of Marx's collected works before being arrested in the spring of 1851 as a defendant in the Cologne Communist Trial. He was sentenced to five years in prison for attempted high treason. In later years he was mayor of Dortmund and Cologne, and a member of the Reichstag.

Becker, Johann—veteran German revolutionary resident in Switzerland, participant in the 1848 uprisings and the First International, and active in the Swiss working-class movement. He was a lifelong friend of Marx, Engels, and Jenny.

Berlin, Isaiah—twentieth-century Russian-born British liberal philosopher, historian of ideas, known first for his work on political freedom, Two Concepts of Liberty.

Bernays, Karl Ludwig (né Lazarus Ferdinand Coelestin)—Bavarian newspaper editor expelled for his liberal views, he worked with Marx on two newspapers in Paris and was jailed under pressure from Prussia for an antimonarchy article. He eventually emigrated to the United States. Known as F. C. Bernays.

Bernstein, Eduard—Swiss-based German newspaper editor and German Social Democrat viewed by Marx and Engels as among the most capable new-generation party men. Accused of revisionism after Engels's death, he was a close friend of Eleanor Marx after he moved to England. Known as Ede.

Besant, Annie (née Wood)—British secularist and writer. An early advocate of birth control, she was charged with obscene libel for promoting it. A former lover of Edward Aveling, she became one of his most vocal critics after he began his relationship with Eleanor Marx. In later years she became a theosophist and agitated for Indian independence.

Biskamp, Elard—fought in the 1848–1849 uprisings in Germany, founder of the London-based German émigré newspaper Das Volk. He worked with Marx on the publication in 1859.

Bismarck, Otto Eduard Leopold von—served in Prussia as ambassador to Russia and France and as prime minister, and became chancellor in the new German Reich created in 1871. He was perhaps the most important figure in uniting the German Confederation under a German Empire, and wielded enormous power domestically and throughout Europe. He instituted antisocialist laws and crackdowns on workers.

Black, Clementina—British author and portraitist, working-class activist, president of the Women's Industrial Council, and a friend of Eleanor Marx.

Blanc, Jean Joseph Louis—French socialist writer and activist, minister in France's 1848 provisional government, he oversaw a controversial jobs program whose dissolution triggered the June Days revolt. Known as Louis.

Blank, Marie (née Engels)—Friedrich Engels's closest sibling, married socialist Emil Blank.

Blanqui, Louis Auguste—veteran French revolutionary, anarchist, communist, propagandist, and participant in every major nineteenth-century revolt in France—1830, 1848, and 1871. Known as Auguste.

Blind, Karl—German writer who worked with Marx in London on refugee matters and socialized with the Marx family during the early 1850s in London.

Blos, Wilhelm—journalist, member of the Social-Democratic Workers' Party, future Reichstag deputy, and minister-president of Germany's Württemberg Government from 1918 to 1920.

Bonaparte, Pierre Napoleon—cousin of Napoleon III and member of France's Constituent and Legislative assemblies.

Born, Stephan (né Simon Buttermilch)—German typesetter and Communist League member introduced to Marx's inner circle in Brussels through Engels, later a leader of the German working-class movement in Berlin.

Bornstedt, Adalbert von—German journalist who worked as an Austrian spy and agent provocateur, he was the editorial assistant on the Paris newspaper Vowarts! and editor of the Deutsche-Brüsseler-Zeitung in Brussels.

Börnstein, Heinrich—German journalist and businessman who founded the Paris newspaper Vowarts!, he later emigrated to the United States and edited a newspaper in St. Louis.

Brandenburg, Friedrich Wilhelm von—illegitimate son of Prussian king Friedrich Wilhelm II, military commander, prime minister of the counterrevolutionary Prussian government formed in November 1849, he remained in that post until his death in November 1850.

Bühring, Karl Johann—German cabinetmaker and member of the Communist League. Marx used his passport to travel to Holland and Berlin in 1861.

Bürgers, Heinrich—radical German journalist and future Reichstag member who worked with Marx in Paris, Brussels, and Cologne. He spent six years in prison after being convicted in the Cologne trial of Communist League members.

Burns, John—British working-class leader and union organizer, member of the Social Democratic Federation, organizer of the London Dock Strike, member of the British Parliament, and cabinet minister in Liberal Party governments.

Burns, Lydia—Irish factory worker and younger sister of Mary Burns, she lived as Engels's common-law wife after the death of her sister in 1863. Known as Lizzy.

Burns, Mary—Irish factory worker in Manchester who lived as Engels's common-law wife until her death in 1863.

Burns, Mary Ellen—niece of Mary and Lizzy Burns, raised by Lizzy and Engels as their daughter. Known as Pumps.

Camphausen, Ludolf—Prussian banker, railway baron, and future prime minister of Prussia, he was a financial backer of the Rheinische Zeitung newspaper that Marx edited in Cologne.

Cavaignac, Louis Eugène—French general and minister of war under the 1848 government, he was given executive power to run France by the National Assembly during the June Days uprising in Paris and until presidential elections in December 1848.

Cervantes, Miguel de—Spanish novelist who lived a life of adventure before succumbing to a life of relative poverty, until age fifty-eight and the success of his novel Don Quixote, one of the Marx family's favorite books.

Champion, Henry Hyde—English socialist, journalist, and retired army artillery officer who helped organize the great London Dock Strike, he was an early supporter of an Independent Labour Party in Britain and helped write its rules.

Charles X (né Charles-Philippe de France)—French Bourbon monarch ousted in 1830 July uprising over his attempts to undo reforms, such as a limited constitution, enacted by his predecessor.

Chernysevsky, Nikolai—Russian journalist and leader of the radical intelligentsia in Russia in the 1850s and 1860s, he was banished to Siberia for nineteen years for his writings, which were interpreted as promoting revolutionary populism.

Clemenceau, Georges Eugène Benjamin—French republican, journalist, member of the National Assembly, interior minister, and twice France's prime minister (1906–1909 and 1917–1920). One of Charles Longuet's closest associates in Paris, he was instrumental in Longuet's return to France from exile in London.

Cluss, Adolf—German engineer, writer, Communist League member, and important Marx colleague in Washington, D.C., where he propagandized for Marxian socialism.

Cohen, Ferdinand—stepson of Karl Blind, he committed suicide in jail after an unsuccessful attempt to assassinate Bismarck in Berlin in 1866.

Collison, William—son of a London policeman, early agitator for the eight-hour workday, and founder of the Free Labour Association, which supplied nonunion labor to break up strikes, among other things.

Cooper, James Fenimore—nineteenth-century American author whose tales, set in untouched frontiers and forests, formed an exciting picture of the continent for European audiences.

Crosse, Arthur Wilson—London lawyer. He handled probate of Engels's will, and wrote wills for Eleanor Marx Aveling and Edward Aveling.

Culine, Hippolyte—French Workers' Party leader in the Lille region during the 1891 Fourmies May Day melee.

Cuno, Theodor—German socialist and International member, he worked on behalf of the International Working Men's Association in Italy and later emigrated to the United States, where he continued working-class and socialist agitation.

D'Agoult, Countess (née Marie-Catherine-Sophie de Flavigny)—former lover of Franz Liszt, with whom she had three children, and Georg Herwegh's lover when Karl and Jenny Marx were in Paris, she presided over a salon of radical thinkers. Pseudonym Daniel Stern.

Dale, George Edgar—Sydenham pharmacist who sent Eleanor Marx prussic acid.

Dana, Charles—American journalist and editor of the New York Daily Tribune from 1849 to 1862, he employed Marx as a foreign correspondent.

Daniels, Amalie—wife of Roland Daniels.

Daniels, Roland—Cologne doctor, close Marx associate, and member of the Communist League. He was tried and acquitted in the Cologne Communist Trial but died shortly afterward from illnesses connected to his long pretrial incarceration.

Danielson, Nikolai—Russian confidant of Marx and Engels, writer, and economist. With Hermann Lopatin and Nikolai Lyubavin, he translated Capital, Volume I into Russian.

Dante Alighieri—Italian poet born in the thirteenth century, best known for The Divine Comedy, he is considered one of the world's greatest poets.

Darwin, Charles—nineteenth-century British naturalist whose 1859 book, On the Origin of Species by Means of Natural Selection, sparked popular debate on evolution and made him instantly famous as a founding scientist of the controversial theory.

Deasy, Captain Michael—U.S. Civil War veteran arrested in Manchester in 1867 as a Fenian leader, in a case that became legend in the Irish independence movement when three Irishmen were hanged for helping him escape.

Defoe, Daniel (né Daniel Foe)—English novelist and journalist, author of Robinson Crusoe and Moll Flanders, among other books, he was known for his realistic depiction of English society in the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries.

Demuth, Helene—domestic in the Westphalen household in Trier, who from age twenty-five lived with Karl and Jenny Marx as a member of the family. Known as Lenchen, she gave birth to a son by Marx.

Demuth, Henry Frederick Lewis—illegitimate son of Karl Marx and Helene Demuth, he lived with a foster family in East London and became a machinist, trade union member, and activist who admired Engels and Marx but died uncertain which of the two men, if either, was his father. Known as Freddy.

De Paepe, César—Belgian journalist, physician, and young member of the International Working Men's Association, he briefly broke with Marx in 1872 and supported Bakunin during a battle for control of the International. He was a founder of the Belgian Workers' Party.

Dickens, Charles—Britain's most popular novelist, whose realistic description of nineteenth-century England came to define the difficult life of the underclasses and the exploitation of the mass of citizens in a booming industrial society.

Dmitrieff Tomanovskaya, Elizabeth, (née Kusheleva)—Russian-born revolutionary who appeared at the Marx home in London in 1870 at age nineteen and won the confidence of Marx and his daughters. She ran missions to Paris for Marx during the 1871 Commune, but eventually stayed in Paris and helped organize women on the barricades.

Donelson, Andrew Jackson—American minister in Prussia during the 1848 uprising, later special envoy and minister plenipotentiary to the federal government of Germany before returning to the United States in 1849.

Doucet, Ernest—Paul and Laura Lafargue's gardener in Draveil, France.

Doucet, Roger—son of Ernest Doucet.

Dourlen, Gustave—French physician who helped Charles Longuet escape from France after the Commune and later acted as doctor to the Longuet family in Argenteuil.

Dronke, Ernst—a writer who had escaped from prison in Germany, he became a member of the Communist League and editor of Neue Rheinische Zeitung in Cologne under Marx. He later emigrated to England and was a close associate of Marx and Engels.

Duff, Sir Mountstuart Elphinstone Grant—Liberal member of the British Parliament in the second half of the nineteenth century.

Dühring, Eugen—blind German socialist, philosopher, economist, and lecturer at Berlin University, he provoked Engels by threatening to inject utopian ideas into the growing German workers' movement. Engels's polemic Anti-Dühring became an important piece of Marxist literature.

Duncker, Franz Gustav—Berlin publisher who at Ferdinand Lassalle's behest agreed in 1858 to take a series of books by Marx. He published Marx's A Contribution to the Critique of Political Economy in 1859.

Dupont, Eugène—French working-class activist, participant in the 1848 Paris uprising, and member of the International General Council.

Eccarius, Georg—German tailor exiled in London, member of the League of the Just, Communist League, and International Working Men's Association. He was IWMA general secretary from 1863 to 1872.

Eichmann, Franz August—Prussian interior minister in 1848 and president of the Rhine province.

Ellis, Henry Havelock—British psychologist and close friend of Eleanor Marx. Impotent until the age of sixty, he made a career of studying sexual relations. He is said to have coined the terms "homosexual," "auto-eroticism," and "narcissism."

Engels, Friedrich—scion of a Prussian textile manufacturer, Marx's closest colleague, and coauthor of, among other things, the Communist Manifesto. Engels completed Marx's Capital, Volumes II and III, and wrote many of his own works. Known as the General, early in his career he used the pseudonym Friedrich Oswald.

Engels, Friedrich Senior—pious Barmen businessman and father of Marx's closest associate.

Epicurus—Greek philosopher who promoted the material basis of life as experienced by the senses, not superstition, with serenity achieved through simple living and virtue.

Ermen, Gottfried—Engels's partner in the Manchester firm of Ermen & Engels.

Ewerbeck, August Hermann—German doctor exiled in Paris and future member of the Communist League. A leader of the Paris League of the Just, to which he introduced Marx.

Favre, Jules Gabrièl Claude—French foreign minister in the Government of National Defense. He agreed to a tentative armistice in 1871 with Bismarck to formally end hostilities begun in the 1870 Franco-Prussian War. In France's elected government of 1871 he retained his position and fought against the Paris Commune and the International.

Ferdinand I—Austrian emperor from 1835 to 1848, said to be feebleminded and under the control of Chancellor Clemens von Metternich.

Ferdinand II—king of the Two Sicilies, a region of southern Italy from Apulia to Sicily, which revolted in 1848, demanding food and a representative government. He regained control after a vicious campaign that earned him the nickname King Bomba and ruled until 1859.

Feuerbach, Ludwig—nineteenth-century German philosopher, Young Hegelian, and Marx's friend, whose writing, especially on religion, helped Marx move away from Hegel.

Fichte, Johann Gottlieb—German Romantic philosopher of the late eighteenth century who viewed the world subjectively, from a point of "I."

Flaubert, Gustave—nineteenth-century French novelist and author of Madame Bovary, later translated into English by Eleanor Marx.

Fleckles, Ferdinand—German doctor who treated Marx in Karlsbad.

Fleury, Charles (né Carl Friedrich August Krause)—Prussian spy and police agent, he posed as a newspaperman to gain entrée to the Marx circle in London. Also known as Schmidt.

Flocon, Ferdinand—French democrat, editor of La Reforme newspaper, and a member of France's provisional government in 1848.

Floquet, Charles—French Chamber of Deputies president in 1891, when Paul Lafargue entered the chamber from Lille.

Florencourt, Wilhelm von—Ferdinand von Westphalen's brother-in-law, and friend to Jenny Marx.

Flourens, Gustave—French natural scientist, academic, military adventurer, and revolutionary, he fought on the side of the Paris Commune and was killed by French national troops in 1871. A frequent visitor to the Marx home while exiled in London, he was apparently Jennychen Marx's first love.

Fox, Peter (né Peter Fox André)—British democrat and journalist, member of the International General Council from 1864 to 1869, editor of The Commonwealth newspaper.

France, Anatole (né Jacques Anatole François Thibault)—nineteenth-century French poet, novelist, and critic who dominated the French literary world in the later years of the century. He was a friend of Charles Longuet.

Freiligrath, Ferdinand—businessman and immensely popular German poet banned by Friedrich Wilhelm IV for the political tone of his writing. He and his family were close to the Marxes from 1845 in Brussels until a falling-out with Marx in London in 1860.

Freyberger, Ludwig—Austrian doctor and second husband of Louise Kautsky, he treated Engels as a live-in physician in London from 1894 until Engels's death in 1895.

Friedrich Wilhelm III—Prussian king from 1797 to 1840, whose reactionary policies ran counter to the wishes of an emerging class of men whose wealth and status was earned, not inherited.

Friedrich Wilhelm IV—Prussian king from 1840 to 1861, he reigned through the 1848 European uprisings and oversaw the counterrevolutionary triumph of reactionary forces in Prussia.

Fröbel, Julius—Zurich-based professor and publisher of radical literature who promised to fund a newspaper venture involving Karl Marx and Arnold Ruge in Paris.

Frye, Eva—London actress and second wife of Edward Aveling. Also known as Lillian Richardson.

Furnivall, Frederick James—British Christian socialist and ardent feminist, founder of numerous literary societies, including the Browning and Chaucer societies and most notably the New Shakespeare Society, early editor of the Oxford English Dictionary.


On Sale
Sep 14, 2011
Page Count
768 pages

Mary Gabriel

About the Author

Mary Gabriel is the author of Ninth Street Women, Lee Krasner, Elaine de Kooning, Grace Hartigan, Joan Mitchell, and Helen Frankenthaler: Five Painters and the Movement that Changed Modern Art, which won the 2022 NYU/Axinn Foundation Prize for narrative nonfiction and the 2019 Library of Virginia and Virginia Museum of Fine Arts's Mary Lynn Kotz Award. Gabriel's previous book, Love and Capital: Karl and Jenny Marx and the Birth of a Revolution, was a finalist for the Pulitzer Prize, the National Book Award, and the National Book Critics Circle Award. She is also the author of Notorious Victoria: The Life of Victoria WoodhullUncensored and The Art of Acquiring: A Portrait of Etta and Claribel Cone. She worked in Washington and London as a Reuters editor for nearly two decades and lives in Ireland.

Learn more about this author