By Kate Marsh
By Philippa Sandall
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Low GI Gluten-Free
Eating Made Easy
OTHER TITLES IN THE NEW GLUCOSE REVOLUTION SERIES
FOR THE DEFINITIVE OVERVIEW OF THE GLYCEMIC INDEX
- The New Glucose Revolution (third edition): The Authoritative Guide to the Glycemic Index—the Dietary Solution for Lifelong Health
FOR A FOCUS ON RECIPES, SHOPPING, AND THE GI IN THE LARGER NUTRITION PICTURE
- The New Glucose Revolution Low GI Vegetarian Cookbook
- The New Glucose Revolution Low GI Family Cookbook
- The New Glucose Revolution Life Plan
- The New Glucose Revolution Shopper’s Guide to GI Values 2008
- The New Glucose Revolution Low GI Guide to Sugar and Energy
FOR A BASIC INTRODUCTION TO THE GI PLUS THE TOP 100 LOW-GI FOODS
- The New Glucose Revolution Low GI Eating Made Easy: The Beginner’s Guide to Eating with the Glycemic Index
FOR A FOCUS ON WEIGHT LOSS
- The Low GI Diet Revolution: The Definitive Science-based Weight Loss Plan
- The Low GI Diet Cookbook: 100 Simple, Delicious Smart-carb Recipes— The Proven Way to Lose Weight and Eat for Lifelong Health
- The New Glucose Revolution Low GI Guide to Losing Weight
FOR A FOCUS ON THE GI AND SPECIFIC HEALTH CONDITIONS
- The New Glucose Revolution for Diabetes: The Definitive Guide to Managing Diabetes and Prediabetes Using the Glycemic Index
- The New Glucose Revolution Low GI Gluten-free Eating Made Easy: The Essential Guide to the Glycemic Index and Gluten-free Living
- The New Glucose Revolution Low GI Guide to the Metabolic Syndrome and Your Heart: The Only Authoritative Guide to Using the Glycemic Index for Better Heart Health
- The New Glucose Revolution What Makes My Blood Glucose Go Up . . . And Down?: 101 Frequently Asked Questions about Your Blood Glucose Level
- The New Glucose Revolution Guide to Living Well with PCOS
To stay up to date with the latest research on carbohydrates, the GI, and your health, and the latest books in the series, check out the free online monthly newsletter GI News, produced by Dr. Jennie Brand-Miller’s GI Group at the University of Sydney: http:ginews.blogspot.com.
Low GI Gluten-Free
Eating Made Easy
The Essential Guide to
the Glycemic Index and
JENNIE BRAND-MILLER, PH.D.
KATE MARSH, R.D., C.D.E.
Many of the designations used by manufacturers and sellers to distinguish their products are claimed as trademarks. Where those designations appear in this book and Da Capo Press was aware of a trademark claim, the designations have been printed in initial capital letters.
Copyright © 2007 by Jennie Brand-Miller, Kate Marsh, Philippa Sandall
All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, stored in a retrieval system, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying, recording, or otherwise, without the prior written permission of the publisher. Printed in the United States of America.
Recipe testing and development by Diane Temple
Spice and herb blend recipes on pages 218–219 courtesy of Ian Hemphill, Herbie’s Spices
This edition published by arrangement with Hachette Livre Australia.
The GI symbol a trademark of the University of Sydney that is recognized in Australia, the United States, and in other countries, is a public health initiative that provides consumers with a credible signpost to healthier food choices using the internationally recognized benefits of GI and sound nutrition. More information about the program is available at www.gisymbol.com.
Designed by Pauline Neuwirth, Neuwirth & Associates, Inc.
Set in 11.5 point Fairfield Light by the Perseus Books Group
Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data
Brand Miller, Janette, 1952-
The new glucose revolution low GI gluten-free eating made easy : the essential guide to the glycemic index and gluten-free living / Jennie Brand-Miller, Kate Marsh, Philippa Sandall.
p. cm. — (New glucose revolution series)
eBook ISBN: 9780786746538
(pbk. : alk. paper) 1. Gluten-free diet—Recipes.
2. Celiac disease—Diet therapy—Recipes. 3. Glycemic index.
I. Marsh, Kate. II. Sandall, Philippa. III. Title.
First Da Capo Press edition 2008
Published by Da Capo Press
A Member of the Perseus Books Group
Note: The information in this book is true and complete to the best of our knowledge. This book is intended only as an informative guide for those wishing to know more about health issues. In no way is this book intended to replace, countermand, or conflict with the advice given to you by your own physician. The ultimate decision concerning care should be made between you and your doctor. We strongly recommend you follow his or her advice. Information in this book is general and is offered with no guarantees on the part of the authors of Da Capo Press. The authors and publisher disclaim all liability in connection with the use of this book.
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When I was first told of the great news that The New Glucose Revolution Low GI Gluten-free Eating Made Easy was going to be written, I was thrilled. As a dietitian working in the area of celiac disease for a very long time, I have seen firsthand the struggle many have faced in making their gluten-free diet varied, nutritious, and enjoyable. As more and more people are aware of the importance of GI (the glycemic index), combining it with the gluten-free diet has created some confusion about what to buy, what to cook, and how to cook it! Low GI Gluten-free Eating Made Easy really does take away such uncertainties and difficulties—it is packed full of ideas on how to accomplish a great-tasting gluten-free low-GI diet.
There is no better team to write this enjoyable, informative, and delicious book. Kate Marsh, a well-respected dietitian, has both celiac disease and diabetes herself. She has joined forces with Jennie Brand-Miller—noted worldwide for her groundbreaking research involving the glycemic index—and Philippa Sandall, who has a unique vision for great publications.
Low GI Gluten-free Eating Made Easy is a book for many. It is ideal for people requiring both a gluten-free diet and a diet to assist with diabetes, heart disease, weight goals, or insulin control, and it appetizingly invites all people to incorporate low-GI cooking into their lifestyle.
But it is more than just a recipe book. I commend the authors for a marvelous job in compiling useful information for readers, including background to the gluten-free diet, glycemic index, and principles of healthy eating. The menu plans are so helpful. The comprehensive low-GI gluten-free food list at the back of the book is an invaluable resource. The information and recipes have been compiled with such careful attention to detail—this is a great reference book of all things low-GI and gluten-free.
I began taste testing the recipes myself with the Grilled Lemon Chicken Skewers, and very soon afterward I cooked the Squash, Ricotta, and Lentil Lasagna, and of course dessert! I could not turn the page past the Chocolate Almond Cake. My taste buds were happy and content—but it was hard to resist going back for more. I am sure you, as readers of the delicious recipes contained within, will wholeheartedly agree.
I hope you enjoy this as much as I have.
Sue Shepard is an award-winning advanced accredited practicing dietitian who specializes in the treatment of dietary intolerances and is the author of several gluten-free cookbooks.
Having lived with type 1 diabetes since I was ten, and celiac disease for the past few years, I’ve experienced firsthand the difficulties of following a restricted diet. And as a dietitian working with many people with the same conditions, I am only too well aware of the challenges faced by anyone trying to eat gluten-free, let alone trying to manage their blood glucose levels.
In fact, in my work, I have found that many adults and children with celiac disease, in their attempt to follow a strict gluten-free diet, don’t end up eating a particularly well-balanced diet.
And although for most people, the improvement in how they feel makes it easy to stick with their diet, I have also seen the struggle some have with:
- The lack of variety in their diet
- Feeling hungry all the time
- Running out of energy during the day.
That is why I have teamed up with Jennie and Philippa to write this book. Gluten-free or not, eating well is the key to our health and well-being, so it pays to get it right.
Low GI Gluten-free Eating Made Easy is for anyone with celiac disease or a gluten intolerance who wants to maximize their health and energy levels by eating well. If you want to ensure that you still get all the nutrients your body needs, feel satisfied after meals, enjoy a varied diet despite restrictions, and optimize your long-term health and well-being, then this book is for you.
WHY THIS BOOK IS IMPORTANT
Celiac disease is completely treatable through diet. But there is much more to your gluten-free lifestyle than focusing on foods you need to avoid. Eating well is the key to good health for everyone, and eating the right foods gives your body the fuel it needs to perform at its best and the energy to get through the day. It’s also an important part of managing and preventing other long-term health problems, including diabetes, heart disease, and cancer, and a range of digestive problems.
Although it is great to see an ever-increasing range of gluten-free foods becoming available and making life easier for those with celiac disease, unfortunately many of them are highly processed and some are high in fat and added sugar—two ingredients that are naturally gluten-free!
Gluten-free diets also tend to have a high glycemic index (GI)—we explain what this is and why it matters in detail in Chapter 3. Many low-GI staples, such as whole-wheat kernel breads, pasta, barley, and oats, are eliminated because they contain gluten. The gluten-free alternatives, due to their ingredients and processing methods, are often quickly digested and absorbed, raising blood glucose and insulin levels and leaving you feeling hungry and often low on energy a few hours after eating.
What this means in practice is that many people following a gluten-free diet are rarely satisfied after meals and may feel hungry between meals, which can lead to overeating and weight gain. As far as we know, this is the first book that shows you how to incorporate low-GI carbs into your meals and reap their health benefits, including a reduced risk of prediabetes, type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease, and some types of cancer. A low-GI diet can also help people with diabetes manage their blood glucose levels. Since celiac disease is more common in people with type 1 diabetes, this is particularly important. Low-GI eating is for everybody, every day, every meal.
It can be difficult to get the right balance on a gluten-free diet, but it is certainly not impossible. In fact, we will show you just how easy it is in this comprehensive guide to what you should be eating, the things you need to leave out, and a fantastic selection of delicious recipes to tempt your taste buds.
Once again, the team behind the New Glucose Revolution phenomenon has pulled together to bring you cutting-edge science and practical know-how to make a healthier, happier you. We are delighted to have Kate on board again (she helped us write The New Glucose Revolution Guide to Living with PCOS and The New Glucose Revolution Low GI Vegetarian Cookbook), bringing both her personal and professional experience of living and breathing a gluten-free diet. If you’d like to keep up to date with the latest GI science and GI values, subscribe to our free newsletter, GI News, at http:ginews.blogspot.com.
and PHILIPPA SANDALL
For many adults and children, gluten-free eating is a lifesaver. But if it’s not well planned, the result can be an unbalanced, unhealthy diet low in whole grains and fiber and high in the fat and added sugar found in many of the gluten-free foods on supermarket shelves. And it is probably a high-GI diet too, because slowly digested staples such as grainy breads, pasta, muesli, and traditional rolled oats are off the menu.
Who Really Needs a
Gluten-free Diet and Why
Some people can’t tolerate gluten. If you have celiac disease or dermatitis herpetiformis (a gluten-sensitive chronic skin condition) you need to eat a gluten-free diet. For life. If you have a gluten intolerance (non-celiac gluten sensitivity) you will need to reduce the amount of gluten in your diet.
Gluten is the protein found in the grains wheat, rye, barley, and triticale. Oats are frequently grown, harvested, milled, and processed alongside gluten-containing grains, so they may be contaminated with gluten. They also contain a glutenlike protein that some people with celiac disease react to. So, although research is ongoing, oats are currently not recommended for people with celiac disease.
UNDERSTANDING CELIAC DISEASE
We don’t know how or why celiac disease occurs, but it seems clear that both the environment and genes play a part. For example, we do know that around 10 percent of all parents, brothers, sisters, or children (first-degree relatives) of someone with celiac disease will also have it. And if one identical twin has celiac disease, there is about a 70 percent chance the other twin will be affected.
We also know that it mainly affects Caucasians (people of European origin), but it occurs in India and some Middle Eastern countries, too. It is rarely diagnosed in Asian, African, and Native American populations.
We also now know it’s not just an early childhood problem. Celiac disease affects children and adults of any age. Many people develop symptoms only as adults, and others have no obvious symptoms at all, making diagnosis very difficult. It is the most common and one of the most underdiagnosed hereditary autoimmune diseases.
In the United States and Canada, celiac disease affects up to one in every hundred people. On top of this, for every person diagnosed with celiac disease, there’s likely to be six undiagnosed people with symptoms or complications attributable to it.
If you have celiac disease and you eat something that contains gluten, you will get an immune reaction in your small intestine. This damages your intestinal wall, reducing its ability to absorb nutrients from food and leading to deficiencies of the essential vitamins and minerals your body needs for growth, health, healing, and energy. In children, if it’s not diagnosed and treated, celiac disease can affect growth and development. In adults, it can lead to long-term health problems including osteoporosis (due to calcium malabsorption), infertility, miscarriage, tooth decay, and an increased risk of cancers of the digestive system.
Celiac disease never goes away.
The good news is that you don’t need drugs to deal with it; you can manage it effectively by following a strict gluten-free diet. By doing this, your intestinal wall will heal so nutrients can be absorbed, your symptoms will be resolved, and long-term health problems may be prevented.
Symptoms vary widely and some are very mild and nonspecific. Some people have all or many of the symptoms while others may have only a few or none at all. Typical symptoms include:
- Fatigue, weakness, and lethargy
- Low iron levels or unexplained anemia that does not improve or recurs after taking iron supplements
- Gas, bloating, and abdominal distension
- Stomach cramps
- Nausea and vomiting
- Weight loss
- Poor weight gain, delayed growth, and delayed puberty in children
Some less common symptoms in adults include:
- Easy bruising of the skin
- Mouth ulcers
- Infertility and miscarriages
- Muscle spasms/cramps due to low calcium levels
- Deficiencies of vitamins B12, A, D, E, and K
- Dental problems
- Poor memory and concentration
- Bone and joint pains
If you have one or more of these signs or symptoms, make an appointment with your doctor for a checkup. He or she should refer you to a gastroenterologist who specializes in celiac disease.
Although blood tests that measure antibodies to gluten can be used to screen for celiac disease, you actually need to have a small bowel biopsy to diagnose it. This test looks at whether the lining of the small intestine shows the typical damage known as villous atrophy (inflammation of the villi, which line the surface of the small intestine) seen in those with celiac disease. A word of warning: It is important you don’t jump the gun and start on a gluten-free diet before you have this test. If you do, the lining of your intestinal wall will repair and may not show any damage when the biopsy is taken, thus preventing a proper diagnosis.
UNDERSTANDING DERMATITIS HERPETIFORMIS
Dermatitis herpetiformis (DH) is also a genetic autoimmune disease caused by sensitivity to gluten. It causes an intensely itchy skin rash that looks like watery blisters or pimples. It generally presents in adult life and is more common in men than women and in people originally from some parts of northern Europe.
DH tends to appear over the kneecap, on the outer surface of the elbows, on the buttock area, around the ears, on the shoulder blades, and in the hairline and eyebrows. It usually occurs symmetrically (on both sides of the body).
As with celiac disease, you never get over it, but you can manage it with a gluten-free diet.
If you have DH, eating a food containing gluten triggers an immune response that deposits a chemical called immunoglob-ulin A (IgA) under the top layer of skin. Your dermatologist will need to take a skin biopsy to determine the presence of IgA deposits. Villous atrophy also occurs in people with DH.
It can take a year or two on a gluten-free diet for the IgA deposits under the skin to clear completely. But don’t despair; medication can provide immediate relief from the itching and burning rash.
UNDERSTANDING GLUTEN INTOLERANCE
Gluten intolerance is a broad term, covering all kinds of sensitivity to gluten. In addition to those with celiac disease and DH, many people have a sensitivity to gluten but do not test positive for celiac disease. These people have what is called non-celiac gluten sensitivity, a condition in which the body does not tolerate large amounts of gluten.
If you have gluten intolerance you will generally need to reduce the amount of gluten in your diet, but you probably won’t have to follow a strict gluten-free diet.
Symptoms may be similar to celiac disease and commonly include digestive symptoms such as diarrhea or constipation, gas, and bloating.
The most accurate way to diagnose gluten intolerance is by doing an elimination diet—this involves removing foods containing gluten for a specified time to see if symptoms resolve, then reintroducing foods containing gluten to see if the symptoms recur. This should be done under the guidance of a registered dietitian (RD) who specializes in food allergies and intolerance. However, it is important to establish whether you have celiac disease before you remove gluten from your diet.
UNDERSTANDING WHEAT INTOLERANCE
In addition to gluten intolerance, some people have an intolerance to wheat but are able to tolerate other gluten-containing grains such as barley, rye, and oats. Symptoms are similar to gluten intolerance and often include gas, bloating, and constipation or diarrhea.
The most accurate way to diagnose wheat intolerance is by doing an elimination diet—this involves removing foods containing wheat for a specified period of time to see if the symptoms go away, then reintroducing foods containing wheat to see if the symptoms recur. This should also be done under the guidance of a registered dietitian who specializes in food allergies and intolerances and, again, you should rule out celiac disease before starting an elimination diet.
IT IS ALSO possible to have an allergy to wheat, although this is not common (it is more likely to be an intolerance) and is rarely as severe as other allergies, such as those to nuts, eggs, and seafood. A wheat allergy can be diagnosed using skin-prick testing— you should see your doctor if you suspect you have an allergy to wheat.
Gluten-free Ground Rules
Our ground rules cover what’s in, what’s out, what tends to be missing from a gluten-free diet, and what you need to do about it.
Although it may seem like mission impossible to suddenly change the way you shop, cook, feed the family, and eat out, it’s not the end of the world. There are plenty of great gluten-free foods to choose from. However, it may take more work and planning to start with.
In this chapter, we give you an idea of the sorts of foods you can enjoy to your heart’s content, plus the ones you should leave off the menu. However, if you need to follow a strict gluten-free diet, we suggest as step one that you join your local celiac support group and take advantage of the up-to-date and comprehensive information it provides for members on shopping, cooking, and eating gluten-free. As for step two, it won’t go amiss to brush up on your food-label reading skills (see page 12).
Our Favorite Gluten-free Food Web Sites:
There are many more foods you can eat than those you can’t. For starters, some foods are naturally gluten-free, such as fruit and vegetables, legumes and nuts, many grains, meat, chicken, and fish (providing they haven’t been processed or breaded). An increasing number of packaged gluten-free foods, such as breads, pastas, cookies, and crackers in supermarkets and health food stores, also make following a gluten-free diet much easier. Some major supermarkets have a gluten-free section where you can shop with confidence, although if you have diabetes you will still need to check nutritional labels for things like fats and total carbs.
The following foods are suitable for those on a gluten-free diet:
- Rice, corn, buckwheat, millet, sorghum, quinoa, amaranth, polenta, tapioca, sago
- Gluten-free breads and breakfast cereals
- Gluten-free pasta, rice noodles and vermicelli, buckwheat noodles, bean thread noodles
- Pure corn taco shells and tortillas
- Legumes (dried peas, beans, and lentils)—check canned varieties for gluten
- Plain nuts
“[A] a must-read for people on gluten-free diets.”
- On Sale
- Mar 25, 2008
- Page Count
- 272 pages
- Da Capo Lifelong Books